American President, Woodrow Wilson presents his ’14 points’ plan to prepare ground for peace which although very different to the eventual Treaty of Versailles, was the basis for the terms of the German surrender at the end of the War.

Representation of the People Act received Royal Assent – universal suffrage for all British men aged 21+ and limited suffrage for British women over 30. The changes recognised the effort and sacrifice British men and women had made for their country.

Newly formed Soviet Red Army goes into action against the German Army for the first time.

Rationing begins in London and the south of Britain for the first time. Sugar, meat, flour, butter, margarine and milk were all rationed. Families had to choose which butcher, baker and grocer they would use their ration cards in. Penalties were stiff for anyone found cheating the system.

Treaty of Brest Litovsk signed between Bolshevik Government and central Powers ending Russia's participation in World War I.

First Battle of the Somme 1918 begins when Germans launch offensive to split French and British lines. British suffer heavy causalities and begin large-scale withdrawal. Fighting continues until 5 April.

Germany shells Paris using long range railway guns. Known as the Paris Gun, it shot a 106-kilogram shell to a range of 130 kilometres and is believed to the first man-made object to reach the stratosphere. Although not very accurate, the shelling terrorised the Parisians.

General Foch becomes Chief of Allied armies in France

Royal Air Force (RAF) is formed. (And is today the oldest independent air force in the world).

Meat rationing introduced across Britain.

Battle of Lys. Second German offensive against British line in Flanders where they capture considerable ground.

WAACs renamed Queen Mary’s Auxiliary Corps – recognition for their conduct during the German offensive during March.

Third military Service Act passed extending eligibility to those aged 51 and to men living in Ireland.

US 1st Division sent to join French Fifth Army.

Largest and final aeroplane raid on London. Thirty three aircraft are involved, 49 people are killed and 177 injured. Germany planned further raids using newly developed incendiary bombs but the plans were dropped.

Battle of Matz. Fourth German offensive on French lines at Verdun. The French are forewarned of this attack  by German prisoners. Nonetheless, the 9 mile German advance was impressive despite fierce French and American resistance. At Compiègne, a French counter-attack halts the German advance.

Third Battle of Aisne. A third German offensive against French lines.

Fourth Battle of Champagne – fifth German attack since March – continues for three days.

Tsar Nicholas II and his family executed by the Bolsheviks. Russia had endured terrible losses and suffering throughout the war. Nicholas was warned of the effects of this on his people and yet ignored advice to initiate fundamental change.

Second Battle of Marne – General Foch launches first counter-attack in reply to five German offensives. The allies take the initiative and make strategic gains which mark the end of a string of German victories.

Last German airship raid on Britain. Four Zeppelins bombed targets in the Midlands and the North of England.

Battle of Amiens –Australian, British, Canadian and French mount a strike on the German army on the Somme. General Ludendorf calls it ‘a black day for the German army’ but fighting continues until 11 November.

British attack on outer defences of the Hindenburg Line and American launch a successful attack against Germans during the Battle of St Mihiel south of Verdun.

Battle of Champagne and Argonne sees French and Americans troops make major push on German lines.

Battle of the Canal du Nord – successful assault by allied troops on the Hindenburg Line.

Battle of Flanders Ridge in Belgium – strong advance from Ypres push Germans back.

Battle of the St Quentin Canal – allied troops break through the Hindenburg Line.

Bulgaria agrees an armistice with the Allies.

Australian, British and Arab forces capture Damascus, Beirut, Homs and Aleppo.

Prince Max von Baden new German Chancellor – seeks an armistice based on US President Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points.

Turkish Government seeks armistice.

Austria-Hungary to become a Federated Nation.

Battle of the Selle – allied offensive in France forcing back German troops.

General Ludendorf resigns as German Quartermaster general.

Austria-Hungary seek armistice with Italy.

Turkey signs armistice with allies as Turkish troops surrender in Mesopotamia.

Serbian troops recapture Belgrade. The period of war left The Kingdom of Serbia's population depleted by some 25% either as a result of, military action, epidemics, food shortages or Spanish Flu. 57% of the male population died and an estimated 500,000 children were orphaned.

German sailors mutiny at Kiel.

The spirit of rebellion spreads across the country and Bolshevik demonstrations begin in German cities.

The German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, abdicates and the country declares itself a republic. He crosses the boarder into the Netherlands. Calls for Wilhelm's extradition after the war were resisted by the Dutch authorities and he remained in the Netherlands for the rest of his life.  

Germany signs armistice with Allies agreeing an immediate ceasefire and the withdrawal of its troops to its own borders. Fighting ends in France and Belgium at 11.00am - whilst Canadian troops in Belgium recapture Mons.

Sections of the German High Seas Fleet officially surrender off Rosyth and 39 German submarines surrender at Harwich. Eventually 122 U-boats, along with various other German ships and support machinery stretched for two miles along the River Stour.

Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck ends his long campaign in German East Africa and surrenders undefeated. He was the only German commander to invade British territory successfully during the First World War.

Allied troops enter Germany.

British Prime Minister David Lloyd George wins general elections at the head of the national government.