Great War Dundee
This is Dundee's story of those that served in the First World War, and of the people left at home
8th January 1918
American President, Woodrow Wilson presents his ’14 points’ plan to prepare ground for peace which although very different to the eventual Treaty of Versailles, was the basis for the terms of the German surrender at the end of the War.
6th February 1918
Representation of the People Act received Royal Assent – universal suffrage for all British men aged 21+ and limited suffrage for British women over 30. The changes recognised the effort and sacrifice British men and women had made for their country.
23rd February 1918
Newly formed Soviet Red Army goes into action against the German Army for the first time.
25th February 1918
Rationing begins in London and the south of Britain for the first time. Sugar, meat, flour, butter, margarine and milk were all rationed. Families had to choose which butcher, baker and grocer they would use their ration cards in. Penalties were stiff for anyone found cheating the system.
3rd March 1918
Treaty of Brest Litovsk signed between Bolshevik Government and central Powers ending Russia's participation in World War I.
21st March - 5th April 1918
First Battle of the Somme 1918 begins when Germans launch offensive to split French and British lines. British suffer heavy causalities and begin large-scale withdrawal. Fighting continues until 5 April.
23rd March - 15th August 1918
Germany shells Paris using long range railway guns. Known as the Paris Gun, it shot a 106-kilogram shell to a range of 130 kilometres and is believed to the first man-made object to reach the stratosphere. Although not very accurate, the shelling terrorised the Parisians.
26th March 1918
General Foch becomes Chief of Allied armies in France
1st April 1918
Royal Air Force (RAF) is formed. (And is today the oldest independent air force in the world).
7th April 1918
Meat rationing introduced across Britain.
9th - 29th April 1918
Battle of Lys. Second German offensive against British line in Flanders where they capture considerable ground.
9th April 1918
WAACs renamed Queen Mary’s Auxiliary Corps – recognition for their conduct during the German offensive during March.
10th April 1918
Third military Service Act passed extending eligibility to those aged 51 and to men living in Ireland.
17th April 1918
US 1st Division sent to join French Fifth Army.
19th May 1918
Largest and final aeroplane raid on London. Thirty three aircraft are involved, 49 people are killed and 177 injured. Germany planned further raids using newly developed incendiary bombs but the plans were dropped.
9th - 14th June 1918
Battle of Matz. Fourth German offensive on French lines at Verdun. The French are forewarned of this attack by German prisoners. Nonetheless, the 9 mile German advance was impressive despite fierce French and American resistance. At Compiègne, a French counter-attack halts the German advance.
27th - 6th June 1918
Third Battle of Aisne. A third German offensive against French lines.
15th July 1918
Fourth Battle of Champagne – fifth German attack since March – continues for three days.
16th July 1918
Tsar Nicholas II and his family executed by the Bolsheviks. Russia had endured terrible losses and suffering throughout the war. Nicholas was warned of the effects of this on his people and yet ignored advice to initiate fundamental change.
18th July - 7th August 1918
Second Battle of Marne – General Foch launches first counter-attack in reply to five German offensives. The allies take the initiative and make strategic gains which mark the end of a string of German victories.
5th August 1918
Last German airship raid on Britain. Four Zeppelins bombed targets in the Midlands and the North of England.
8th - 11th August 1918
Battle of Amiens –Australian, British, Canadian and French mount a strike on the German army on the Somme. General Ludendorf calls it ‘a black day for the German army’ but fighting continues until 11 November.
12th September 1918
British attack on outer defences of the Hindenburg Line and American launch a successful attack against Germans during the Battle of St Mihiel south of Verdun.
26th September - 15th October 1918
Battle of Champagne and Argonne sees French and Americans troops make major push on German lines.
27th September - 9th October 1918
Battle of the Canal du Nord – successful assault by allied troops on the Hindenburg Line.
28th September - 10th October 1918
Battle of Flanders Ridge in Belgium – strong advance from Ypres push Germans back.
29th September - 2nd October 1918
Battle of the St Quentin Canal – allied troops break through the Hindenburg Line.
30th September 1918
Bulgaria agrees an armistice with the Allies.
1st October 1918
Australian, British and Arab forces capture Damascus, Beirut, Homs and Aleppo.
3rd October 1918
Prince Max von Baden new German Chancellor – seeks an armistice based on US President Woodrow Wilson’s 14 points.
14th October 1918
Turkish Government seeks armistice.
16th October 1918
Austria-Hungary to become a Federated Nation.
17th October 1918
Battle of the Selle – allied offensive in France forcing back German troops.
26th October 1918
General Ludendorf resigns as German Quartermaster general.
27th October 1918
Austria-Hungary seek armistice with Italy.
30th October 1918
Turkey signs armistice with allies as Turkish troops surrender in Mesopotamia.
1st November 1918
Serbian troops recapture Belgrade. The period of war left The Kingdom of Serbia's population depleted by some 25% either as a result of, military action, epidemics, food shortages or Spanish Flu. 57% of the male population died and an estimated 500,000 children were orphaned.
3rd November 1918
German sailors mutiny at Kiel.
4th November 1918
The spirit of rebellion spreads across the country and Bolshevik demonstrations begin in German cities.
9th November 1918
The German Kaiser, Wilhelm II, abdicates and the country declares itself a republic. He crosses the boarder into the Netherlands. Calls for Wilhelm's extradition after the war were resisted by the Dutch authorities and he remained in the Netherlands for the rest of his life.
11th November 1918
Germany signs armistice with Allies agreeing an immediate ceasefire and the withdrawal of its troops to its own borders. Fighting ends in France and Belgium at 11.00am - whilst Canadian troops in Belgium recapture Mons.
21st November 1918
Sections of the German High Seas Fleet officially surrender off Rosyth and 39 German submarines surrender at Harwich. Eventually 122 U-boats, along with various other German ships and support machinery stretched for two miles along the River Stour.
25th November 1918
Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck ends his long campaign in German East Africa and surrenders undefeated. He was the only German commander to invade British territory successfully during the First World War.
1st December 1918
Allied troops enter Germany.
14th December 1918
British Prime Minister David Lloyd George wins general elections at the head of the national government.